Apple’s new streaming service reportedly has a $1 billion bu

Photo: Marcio Jose Sanchez (AP) Apple’s new streaming service reportedly has a $1 billion budget, but apparently it can’t buy some nerve. The company has long censored its walled-garden offerings on platforms like the App Store, and per a report in the Wall Street Journal on Saturday, Apple is still aiming to keep its content offerings squeaky clean, with little “gratuitous sex, profanity or violence.” The desire to keep everything family-friendly is reportedly delaying or interfering with many projects. and the Journal writes that Apple’s own staff in Los Angeles have begun referring to the streaming project as “expensive NBC.”
The Journal wrote that CEO Tim Cook personally shot down Apple’s first scripted drama Vital Signs , about the life of hip-hop magnate Dr. Dre, after he watched the already-filmed show and was alarmed to see scenes featuring cocaine use, an orgy, and “drawn guns”:
It’s too violent, Mr. Cook told Apple Music executive Jimmy Iovine, said people familiar with Apple’s entertainment plans. Apple can’t show this.
Across Hollywood and inside Apple, the show has become emblematic of the challenges faced by the technology giant as it pushes into entertainment. Apple earmarked $1 billion for Hollywood programming last year. But in the tone CEO Mr. Cook has set for it, whatever Apple produces mustn’t taint a pristine brand image that has helped the company collect 80% of the profits in the global smartphone market.
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(Previous reports have indicated that Vital Signs was delayed because Apple and Dre weren’t happy with the quality of the finished product.)
Unhampered by the need to protect a mainstay product line that wants to remain as uncontroversial as possible, Apple’s competitors in the streaming arena like Netflix, Amazon, and HBO have all released grittier content on much fatter production budgets. Entertainment doesn’t need to be full of blood sprays and naked bodies to be entertaining, obviously, but the Journal’s report suggests that Apple’s desire to keep even the sternest of brows unfurrowed has hurt its lineup and could ultimately delay launch day.
Apple has bought “more than a dozen shows, favoring broadly appealing, family-friendly fare,” the paper wrote, which include a program about Emily Dickinson, a presumably wholesome “ Friday Night Lights -style drama” on the life of NBA star Kevin Durant, an unspecified Oprah Winfrey program , and something with the creators of Sesame Street . These projects do have some big names attached, but if the list elicits a bit of a yawn, no one could blame the yawner.
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According to the Journal, Apple’s Hollywood executive team on the streaming project (Zack Van Amburg and Jamie Erlicht, likely best known for their involvement with hit drug-war show Breaking Bad ) have to “devote considerable time to winning a nod for shows from Mr. Cook and Eddy Cue, a senior vice president who oversees services, said someone well-versed in company dynamics.” That included watering down a show proposal from, um, M. Night Shyamalan, whose post- The Sixth Sense career is not exactly considered edgy, to remove crucifixes:
Messrs. Van Amburg and Erlicht have successfully pushed some edgier shows. Apple signed a deal for a series made by M. Night Shyamalan about a couple who lose a young child.
Before saying yes to that psychological thriller, Apple executives had a request: Please eliminate the crucifixes in the couple’s house, said people working on the project. They said executives made clear they didn’t want shows that venture into religious subjects or politics. Mr. Shyamalan wasn’t available for comment.
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… OK.
According to the Journal, Apple also outbid rivals for a costly (up to or over $12 million an episode) drama about a morning news program starring Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon. The show is now delayed after issues with an executive producer, but also because Apple “wanted a more upbeat show and took exception to some of the humor proposed, according to people working on the project.” Finally, Apple also found new showrunners for Steven Spielberg’s Amazing Stories after concluding it was too “dark,” the paper wrote.
One can’t account for taste! But show business isn’t really like the App Store or an iPhone commercial, where Apple’s prudish attitude at least makes more sense on business grounds. One key lesson of Netflix’s success was that the streaming format allowed it to air the kind of content previously relegated to premium cable channels like HBO. Narrow sensibilities—specifically Cook’s sensibilities, apparently—could mean the difference between Apple becoming a threat to its streaming rivals or a flop. In the latter scenario, bundling the new service with other stuff like news subscriptions, as Apple has been widely reported to be planning, isn’t going to turn the tables.
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Time will tell!
On the plus side, there’s no mention that Apple execs are interfering with its planned adaptation of Isaac Asimov’s classic Foundation trilogy , which is long overdue for the Hollywood treatment.
[ Wall Street Journal ]
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No Sex Please, We’re Apple: iPhone Giant Seeks TV Success on Its Own Terms

164 Comments By Tripp Mickle and Tripp Mickle Tripp Mickle @trippmickle tripp.mickle@wsj.com Joe Flint Joe Flint Joe Flint @JBFlint Joe.Flint@WSJ.com Sept. 22, 2018 12:01 a.m. ET Illustration: Red Nose Studio Tim Cook sat down more than a year ago to watch Apple Inc.’s AAPL 1.18% first scripted drama, “Vital Signs,” and was troubled by what he saw. The show, a dark, semi-biographical tale of hip hop artist Dr. Dre, featured characters doing lines of cocaine, an extended orgy in a mansion and drawn guns.
It’s too violent, Mr. Cook told Apple Music executive Jimmy Iovine, said people familiar with Apple’s entertainment plans. Apple can’t show this.
Across Hollywood and inside Apple, the show has become emblematic of the challenges faced by the technology giant as it pushes into entertainment. Apple earmarked $1 billion for Hollywood programming last year. But in the tone CEO Mr. Cook has set for it, whatever Apple produces mustn’t taint a pristine brand image that has helped the company collect 80% of the profits in the global smartphone market.
Apple CEO Tim Cook told Apple Music executive Jimmy Iovine, right, that a series loosely based on the life of Dr. Dre, left, was too violent for Apple, according to people familiar with Apple’s entertainment plans. Photo: Kevin Winter/Getty Images Apple’s entertainment team must walk a line few in Hollywood would consider. Since Mr. Cook spiked “Vital Signs,” Apple has made clear, say producers and agents, that it wants high-quality shows with stars and broad appeal, but it doesn’t want gratuitous sex, profanity or violence.
The result is an approach out of step with the triumphs of the video-streaming era. Other platforms, such as HBO and Amazon.com Inc., have made their mark in original content with edgier programming that often wins critical acclaim. Netflix Inc., which helped birth the streaming revolution, built its original-content business on “House of Cards,” a drama about an ethically bankrupt politician, and “Orange Is the New Black,” a comedic drama about a women’s prison. Both feature rough language and plenty of sex.
As a consumer-product company, Apple is especially exposed if content strikes a sour note, said Preston Beckman, a former NBC and Fox programming executive. For Netflix, the only risk is that people don’t subscribe, he said. “With Apple, you can say, ‘I’m going to punish them by not buying their phone or computer.’ “
Apple has twice postponed the launch of its first slate of shows, moving it to March from late this year, agents and producers said. One leading producer with projects at Apple expects the date to be pushed back yet further.
Coca-Cola, which owned Columbia Pictures in the 1980s, found its successes were outweighed by expensive flops such as ‘Ishtar.’ Photo: Everett Collection Hollywood routinely humbles big companies that try to join its club. In 2014, Microsoft Corp. closed its Hollywood unit, Xbox Entertainment Studios, before it got off the ground. Coca-Cola Co. , which owned Columbia Pictures in the 1980s, found its success with “Ghostbusters” and “Stand by Me” was outweighed by expensive flops such as “Ishtar.”
Entertainment is “irrational and unpredictable,” said Peter Sealey, a consultant who led marketing for Coke’s Hollywood business. Apple excels at devices and Coke at soft drinks, he said, but “movies and TV are none of that. They’re emotional.”
Mr. Cook told analysts in July that Apple wasn’t ready to detail its Hollywood plans, but he felt “really good about what we will eventually offer.” The company didn’t make executives available for interviews for this article.
Hollywood is central to Apple’s strategy. As growth slows in the number of iPhones sold, Apple is trying to accelerate its services business, which includes the App Store, mobile payments and entertainment, including its music-subscription offering. It wants shows to support a video service on its TV app that could be bundled with subscriptions such as iCloud storage, said the people familiar with Apple’s entertainment plans.
Apple’s arrival coincides with upheaval in Hollywood. Declining pay-TV subscriptions and the rise of Netflix have set off an entertainment land grab. Tech giants such as Amazon and Facebook Inc. are offering video services to deepen ties with existing customers. Traditional media and telecom companies are trying to fend them off with mergers, such as Walt Disney Co.’s deal for 21st Century Fox Inc. assets and AT&T Inc.’s acquisition of Time Warner Inc.
The tumult has fueled an explosion in the number of scripted shows, to 487 last year, up more than two-thirds in five years. There is a rush to sign up top show creators, as in Warner Bros.’s $300 million long-term deal to keep prolific producer Greg Berlanti .
Apple has bought more than a dozen shows, favoring broadly appealing, family-friendly fare. They include a series about poet Emily Dickinson and a “Friday Night Lights”-style drama about basketball star Kevin Durant. Apple signed partnerships with Oprah Winfrey, perhaps entertainment’s most wholesome star, and Sesame Workshop, the producers of “Sesame Street.”
Of roughly two-dozen shows Apple has in development or production, only a few could veer into “TV-MA” territory, television’s equivalent of R-rated films.
Apple’s sensitivity affects how its top Hollywood executives, Zack Van Amburg and Jamie Erlicht, approach their jobs. The duo, who previously shepherded “Breaking Bad” at Sony Pictures, devote considerable time to winning a nod for shows from Mr. Cook and Eddy Cue, a senior vice president who oversees services, said someone well-versed in company dynamics.
Apple’s top Hollywood executives are Zack Van Amburg (center) and Jamie Erlicht (right), pictured above with actress Glenn Close in 2012, when they were executives with Sony Pictures. Photo: Mike Coppola/Getty Images Messrs. Van Amburg and Erlicht have successfully pushed some edgier shows. Apple signed a deal for a series made by M. Night Shyamalan about a couple who lose a young child.
Before saying yes to that psychological thriller, Apple executives had a request: Please eliminate the crucifixes in the couple’s house, said people working on the project. They said executives made clear they didn’t want shows that venture into religious subjects or politics. Mr. Shyamalan wasn’t available for comment.
Not every moviemaker has found Apple imposing boundaries. Early work on a comedy called “Little America” with Kumail Nanjiani “feels like a typical development process,” said co-producer Lee Eisenberg.
And graphic content certainly isn’t the only path to success in TV and streaming. There’s little or none in some of Netflix’s hits, such as “Stranger Things,” and in some popular broadcast-TV shows such as “The Big Bang Theory.”
Still, there’s no shying away from nudity, politics and raw language at cable networks such as FX, TNT, HBO and Showtime or at Netflix and Amazon Prime. Even Disney, which built its business on animated films for children, is bringing R-rated content like the raunchy “Deadpool” superhero films into its fold with its pending 21st Century Fox acquisition.
Where Apple draws the line isn’t clear, say producers, agents and writers.
“I’m not sure myself what they’re after,” said producer Shawn Ryan, whose credits include the FX hit ”The Shield.”
“I do adore Zack and Jamie and trust in their taste. I think we’re all curious to see what it’s going to be.”
Apple is making big commitments to win projects. It outbid Netflix and CBS Corp.’s Showtime to land a drama about a morning news show starring Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon , ordering two seasons and skipping the usual requirement of a pilot episode. The show’s price could top $12 million an episode, according to people familiar with it.
Apple’s venture entails behind-the-scenes drama unusual for the tech company’s typically regimented operations. Apple replaced the person in charge of the Aniston-Witherspoon show, known as the showrunner, before filming. The executive producer’s inexperience was an issue, but Apple also wanted a more upbeat show and took exception to some of the humor proposed, according to people working on the project. The show now is delayed and is having scheduling issues with Ms. Witherspoon, who has other commitments, they said.
Apple also replaced showrunners for a reboot of Steven Spielberg’s anthology “Amazing Stories,” finding the original team’s vision a little dark, said people familiar with that project. Apple’s handful of TV-MA projects include “Shantaram,” about a former heroin addict who smuggles guns to Afghanistan, and a potential show about the late pop star George Michael.
Mr. Cook, better known for memorizing spreadsheets and detailing supply costs, makes an unlikely Hollywood kingpin. His favorite TV shows are relatively tame fare such as “Friday Night Lights” and “Madame Secretary,” say people he has spoken with about it.
Apple CEO Tim Cook speaking during a product launch event in Cupertino, Calif. Photo: NOAH BERGER/Agence France-Presse/Getty Image Mr. Cue acts as Hollywood translator. He made his mark leading Apple’s iTunes business with a tough negotiating style that cemented the 99-cent price for songs. Mr. Cue has said shows he enjoys include HBO’s violent and sex-filled “Game of Thrones” and the sci-fi “Westworld.”
The two men started exploring a video-programming strategy almost three years ago. With investors calling for Apple to buy Netflix, and Apple’s effort to launch a bundle of cable channels foundering , the executives invited in Hollywood executives such as Creative Artists Agency people and award-winning producer Brian Grazer, said people involved in the discussions. Apple wanted to know about how the business works, who was doing well and why.
Apple discussed with CAA afterward a confidential initiative to procure and develop programming for its app store, according to these people. They said the talent agency secured funding for the effort and scooped up several projects, including a Keanu Reeves show about a hit man and a risqué Michael Fassbender show about a rally-car driver.
Apple Music pursued projects of its own. The division, built partly through the $3 billion 2014 acquisition of Beats Electronics LLC, was led by Mr. Iovine, who figured video would differentiate Apple’s streaming-music service. In addition to the ill-fated “Vital Signs” project with Beats co-founder and Apple executive Dr. Dre, Mr. Iovine worked on a show called “Planet of the Apps” and partnered with CBS on “Carpool Karaoke.”
Some content on both shows, which now are available on Apple Music, originally troubled Apple brass. The company edited out “Planet of the Apps” segments with swearing, frustrating stars of the show, said a person familiar with the editing.
In “Carpool Karaoke,” which won an Emmy this week, Apple sanitized comedian James Corden’s faux outrage in the first episode so the audience hears “What the [bleep]?”
John Legend and Alicia Keys appeared on episodes of Apple’s ‘Carpool Karaoke: The Series’ in 2017. Photo: Apple Music As Apple Music’s video efforts struggled, Mr. Cue charted a new course, hiring Messrs. Van Amburg and Erlicht from Sony, where they had built a reputation for creative chops and business savvy. The mandate was to build a slate of original shows.
The duo visited talent agencies last fall encouraging agents to bring them quality ideas. One agent described the message as: “Don’t edit yourselves. We’re Apple, and we’re going to take big swings.” Agents soon began to question that, as Apple started signing up series with the broad appeal of network shows and ended discussions over the grittier projects starring Mr. Fassbender and Mr. Reeves, according to people familiar with those projects.
Messrs. Van Amburg and Erlicht amended their message, saying Apple was open to anything and everything so long as there was no gratuitous violence or nudity, according to talent-agency people. One agent said some members of Apple’s team in Los Angeles began calling themselves “expensive NBC.”
Recently, Apple initially expressed interest when it was pitched a politically charged show about a college ombudsman in the era of #MeToo, featuring comedian Whitney Cummings and the producer behind the Fox hit “Empire,” Lee Daniels. Apple subsequently sent word there was concern about the sensitive topics, and the sides had differing opinions on the show’s direction.
The show is now in talks to end up at Amazon.
Write to Tripp Mickle at Tripp.Mickle@wsj.com and Joe Flint at joe.flint@wsj.com
Appeared in the September 22, 2018, print edition as ‘Apple Gets Ready for Its Close-Up.’

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8 Artists Taking On The Big Global Challenge: Climate Change

IMPACT 09/23/2018 05:45 am ET Updated 14 hours ago 8 Artists Taking On The Big Global Challenge: Climate Change “We should (and may) die trying to render climate change issues accessible.” By Laura Paddison We are bombarded with evidence of climate change. We can see the impacts through scorching summers , wildfires and increasingly intense extreme weather events . We hear about it through terrifying scientific reports that say we have just a few years before we’ll have missed the boat on holding back our slide into catastrophic climate change. And yet few people act; most don’t even talk about it .
Increasingly, artists are trying to use their work to beat back a sense of apathy and inaction, to visualize the effects and threats of climate change.
For some, this means using empathy and emotion to try to reach people; for some, it’s turning to technology to engage people in a virtual image of what our future will look like if we don’t change course; still for others, it’s about making a brutal reality visible and tangible for people, even when their own hope in change has dissipated.
Here we look at eight artists taking on the ultimate subject: climate change.
‘Climate Signals,’ Justin Brice Guariglia Amanda Nesci Ten solar-powered highway signs have appeared across New York City providing orange LED warnings of climate doom. The signs by artist Justin Brice Guariglia form an installation running in each borough of the city between Sept. 1 and Nov. 6 as part of a project for The Climate Museum.
The signs are located in areas particularly vulnerable to climate change and are in the languages frequently spoken in that particular neighborhood. They flash a number of messages including “Climate Change At Work” and “Fossil Fueling Inequality.”
“The arts are a critical vector for climate engagement,” Miranda Massie, director of The Climate Museum, told HuffPost. “Only 5 percent of us speak about [climate change] with any regularity. We need a cultural transformation to break that silence ― we need to offer diverse pathways into climate dialogue and action, including soft ones. Art is a crucial pathway because it works through emotion and the senses, and because it provokes without prescribing.”
‘Ice Watch,’ Olafur Eliasson JOEL SAGET via Getty Images “Ice Watch”, an art installation by Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson, on display in Paris in December 2015. Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson’s work involved transporting 12 blocks of ice that came from free-floating icebergs from the Greenland ice sheet, then arranging them in a clock formation to indicate the passing of time. The ice sculptures were left to slowly melt.
His first installation was in Copenhagen in 2014, the second in Paris to coincide with the United Nations climate change conference in December 2015.
He firmly believes art has the power to make a difference. “There is a tendency today to feel untouched by the problems of others, to shut down at the immensity of an issue like climate change,” he told HuffPost. “Just informing people, giving them knowledge, often leaves them feeling overwhelmed and disempowered.” But a piece like “Ice Watch,” he said, “offers people an immediate experience of the reality of climate change … It makes the larger world felt. It is my hope that this encounter and the feelings it evokes can spur action and move worlds.”
‘Unmoored,’ Mel Chin Lucas Jackson / Reuters Pedestrians walk past artist Mel Chin’s mixed reality climate change themed art installation, “Unmoored,” in New York City on July 11, 2018. New York City is one of the world cities most vulnerable to sea level rises – by 2100, scientists predict sea levels could be up to 75 inches higher than they are today along the city’s coastline and estuaries.
Artist Mel Chin’s Times Square multimedia installation, “Unmoored,” sought to show New Yorkers what their city might look like deep under water. A 60-foot high sculpture of a shipwreck sat in the square, while viewers used smartphones to see the underside of virtual ships floating far above their heads.
“It is a surreal experience invented to connect us with our reality,” Chin said at the opening of the installation.
“We should (and may) die trying to render climate change issues perceptually accessible as a means to reactivate wonder and rekindle empathy,” he told HuffPost,
‘The peo-ple cried mer-cy in the storm,’ Allison Janae Hamilton Jerry L Thompson “The peo-ple cried mer-cy in the storm,” by Allison Janae Hamilton On an island at Storm King Art Center, in Mountainville, New York, are three vertiginous stacks of tambourines all painted white. They form an installation by Kentucky-born, Florida-raised artist Allison Janae Hamilton. The title – “The peo-ple cried mer-cy in the storm” – comes from a 1928 hymn, “Florida Storm,” written about the Great Miami Hurricane, which in 1926 devastated large parts of southern Florida, killing nearly 400 people.
Hamilton says the piece also references the Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928, which claimed between 2,500 and 3,000 lives in Florida and the Caribbean. Many of those in Florida who lost their lives in the disaster were black, migrant farm workers who were later buried in mass, unmarked graves.
“As climate change continues to threaten our environments, so increases the vulnerability of those already exposed to longstanding environmental injustices,” Hamilton told HuffPost. “Through the narratives in my artwork, I explore the changing climate as a palpable, human experience.”
‘What Future Do You Choose for Miami?’, Miami Murals/Before It’s Too Late Before Its Too Late A viewer uses their smartphone to view ‘What Future Do You Choose for Miami?’, an augmented reality mural in the city. Miami has been called the ground zero of climate change. By 2030, Miami sea levels are projected to rise by six to 10 inches above 1992 levels. Extreme weather events have battered the city – 2017′s Hurricane Irma swept through Florida leaving a trail of devastation in its wake and claiming more than 80 lives in the state.
A group of artists and technologists, anxious to better engage people in the threats posed by climate change, have banded together to create an augmented-reality mural in the city under the banner of an initiative called “Before It’s Too Late.”
The 96- by 14-foot mural features a canary, designed to symbolize the city’s status as a “canary in the coal mine” when it comes to climate change.
Viewers download an app that allows them to point their smartphones at the wall and see it come to life by way of an augmented-reality film. The film shows two future realities for the city. In one, no action is taken and the city becomes unliveable – flooded, decaying and dirty. The second shows a hopeful future powered by renewable energy.
“Our message is in order to create change for a better future, we have to first be willing to shine the mirror on ourselves as we are each participants who help create the moral and cultural values of this world,” “Before It’s Too Late” founder Linda Cheung told HuffPost.
‘Western Flag (Spindletop, Texas 2017),’ John Gerrard Courtesy John Gerrard Thomas Dane Gallery London and Simon Preston Gallery New York Western Flag (Spindletop, Texas 2017), a virtual art installation by Irish artist John Gerrard, uses a haunting image to symbolize our complex relationship with oil. Spindletop, Texas, is the site of the world’s first major oil discovery, made in 1901. Where once 100,000 barrels of oil were extracted in one day, the land is now barren. Irish artist John Gerrard flew a drone over the area, taking 10,000 to 15,000 photos, to recreate it virtually for his artwork Western Flag.
The focal point of his work is a towering, computer-generated flag belching out black smoke. The flag runs as if in real time: The landscape turns dark when the sun goes down in Texas and is lit during the daytime.
Gerrard wanted to take on oil as something that is central to our reality, a material that has become essential to the way we live our lives both in terms of the advantages it provides and the climate damage it causes.
The flag aims to make manifest this uncomfortable dichotomy. “One of the greatest legacies of the 20th century is not just population explosion or better living standards, but vastly raised carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere,” Gerrard told HuffPost. “This flag gives this invisible gas, this international risk, an image, a way to represent itself.”
‘Cascade,’ Alexis Rockman Alexis Rockman Collection Grand Rapids Art Museum Cascade, 2015, oil and alkyd on wood, Collection Grand Rapids Art Museum Alexis Rockman has been tackling climate change through his art since 1994, when a paleontologist described the danger heading our way and why he was frightened about it. Rockman decided to used his position as an artist “to visualize these things that were very abstract and remote in terms of people’s life span and comprehension,” he told HuffPost.
“I realized that art was one of the few places where you don’t have censorship pressure from capitalism from powerful industries,” he added. “They don’t have a say if you decide to focus on ideas that might challenge their business model.”
Many of his images show landscapes ravaged by climate change and environmental destruction. “Cascade” is part of his “Great Lakes Cycle,” a series that explores the past, present and future of America’s Great Lakes. These lakes form one of the most important ecosystems on the planet, holding over 20 percent of the world’s freshwater reserves. But they are exploited and vulnerable to climate change. Rockman depicts both their beauty and the devastating threats they face.
When asked if he thought art can spur change when it comes to global warming, he replied: “No. When there is open warfare on empirical facts my feelings include rage and disgust to go along with despair. ” But, he added, “P art of the reason to be an artist is to get yourself out of bed every morning and try to do something about it, or at least cope. The thing about being an artist is that it’s so self-motivated and self-determined that it has to be an act of defiance to get through it.”
‘Rococo Remastered,’ Noel Kassewitz
Kassewitz Kassewitz Productions 2018 “Rococo Remastered,” by Noel Kassewitz. Washington, D.C.-based artist Noel Kassewitz makes “climate change ready” art. Using found flotation devices and color palettes from different periods of art history – such as rococo – she makes pieces that aim to bring attention to climate change with humor.
“Today, we are facing unprecedented levels of chaos with our climate,” Kassewitz told HuffPost, “While there are myriad ways the change is occurring, one most concerning to me – an artist and Miami native – is rising sea levels.”
She has been floating down the Potomac River on her artwork, showing its buoyant abilities as well as trying to send a message to those who ignore the problem.
“Humor catches people off guard, and through my current bodies of work I am often able spark conversations with people otherwise reluctant to engage with the topic. As for my own amusement, I imagine some day in the flooded future an art collector will be safely sitting on top of their floating artwork exclaiming, “Thank goodness we bought a Noel Kassewitz!’”
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